RFID

Rédigé par retrodev | Classé dans : Produits

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Puce RFID Les puces d'identification radio, ou RFID, sont de petites puces électroniques. Elles contiennent généralement un identifiant (numérique), et parfois quelques données complémentaires qu'elles peuvent transmettre à courte distance. S'intégrant facilement dans notre environnement, ces étiquettes radio font partie des technologies clefs de l'Internet des Objets.

Technologies

Les étiquettes passives ne possèdent pas de batterie, seulement un puce et une antenne. Pour les activer, le lecteur comporte alors un transpondeur (émetteur radio) qui doit émettre de l'énergie ainsi qu'un signal spécifique. La puce renvoie alors ses données, qui sont captées par le récepteur radio également compris dans le lecteur.

Les étiquettes actives, elles, sont équipées d'une batterie. Elles n'ont donc pas besoin de recevoir d'énergie pour émettre. Elles diffusent donc en permanence leurs informations, et tout lecteur à proximité peut les recevoir. Ce fonctionnement actif permet également une plus grande portée.

Les choses sont cependant parfois moins simples, et certaines étiquettes passives peuvent avoir une batterie. Le lecteur déclenche la puce, mais sans avoir besoin de lui envoyer d'énergie. Cela permet de bénéficier de la plus grande portée des systèmes actifs, en conservant le fonctionnement par activation. Ce sont donc moins les caractéristiques d'alimentation que celles de communication (permanente ou après activation) qui différencient les deux types de puces.

Des RFID, actives ou passives, peuvent également embarquer des batteries alimentant des capteurs, afin de stocker et transmettre des informations sur leur environnement.

Usages

La technologie RFID n'est pas récente, et les puces sont largement utilisées depuis les années 80. Vous les avez sans doute déjà rencontrées dans des livres, sur des disques, utilisées par les systèmes antivols des magasins et bibliothèques. En raison de leur faible coût et encombrement, ce sont généralement des puces passives (et sans batterie) qui sont employées. Les bornes près des caisses ou des portes jouent alors le rôle de lecteurs.

Les étiquettes RFID sont également souvent, comme leur nom l'indique, utilisées par des systèmes d'identification : badges d'accès, colliers d'animaux de compagnie, et les nouveaux papiers d'identités dans de nombreux pays. Leur emploi dans des systèmes de payement électronique (généralement en intégrant la puce à un téléphone mobile) ne s'est pas encore développé en France.

L'Internet des Objets offre déjà de nombreux exemples d'utilisation de cette technologie autour d'interfaces naturelle (placer un zTamps sur un Mir:ror pour déclencher une application), de systèmes de communication innovants (en ajoutant des puces dans de banales cartes de visites) ...

Limites

Bien entendu, l'identification à distance peut faire peur, d'autant qu'il est difficile de garantir qu'une puce puisse n'être lue que par un lecteur en particulier. La multiplication des RFID nous expose donc à l'enregistrement, à notre insu, de données potentiellement sensibles (localisation, habitudes de consommation, ...).

Un certain nombre d'applications critiques se sont tournées vers NFC (Near Field Communication), une technologie assez proche mais dont la portée plus courte (une dizaine de centimètres) rend l'utilisation dépendante d'une action volontaire (poser son badge ou son téléphone sur le lecteur). Les codes-barre 2D (ou QRcodes) restent également très largement utilisés en raison de leur coût presque nul.

Pour aller plus loin

Mots clés : RFID, puces, radio, NFC, QR codes

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