Mark Weiser

Rédigé par retrodev | Classé dans : Biblio

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Mark Weiser est un chercheur visionnaire qui a dirigé le laboratoire d'informatique du Palo Alto Research Center de Xerox, et publié certains des articles fondateurs de l'ubicomp.

The Computer for the 21th Century

En Septembre 1991, dans Scientific American, un mensuel de vulgarisation scientifique réputé, paraît The Computer for the 21th Century. Dès sa première phrase, Mark Weiser définit prophétiquement le concept d'informatique ubiquitaire (terme qu'il a inventé trois ans auparavant) : The most profound technologies are those that disappear.

Il présente l'écosystème numérique mis en place au Xerox PARC, s'articulant autour de trois types d'appareils : les tabs, les pads et les boards. Les tabs sont des écrans de poche, également susceptibles d'être utilisés comme badges électroniques grâce à leur connexions infrarouges. Les pads sont des tablettes utilisables avec un stylet, permettant de travailler directement sur des documents distants, en se connectant au réseau local par un système sans-fil (proche du WiFi). Les boards, enfin, sont des écrans muraux pour le travail collaboratif. Aujourd'hui, il n'y a plus rien d'étonnant dans ces spécifications, car elles sont devenues notre quotidien.

Mark Weiser décrit ensuite un monde où l'informatique est diffuse, sous forme de tabs, de pads et de board, de capteurs, d'interfaces et de connexions transparentes. Il évoque le potentiel de ces technologies pour la collaboration à distance (savoir quand l'autre est disponible, converser, partager des documents) comme pour la vie de tous les jours. Ce récit d'anticipation ne semble pas loin de se réaliser, avec la généralisation de l'Internet mobile et des objets connectés. Néanmoins, il soulève des problématiques liées au respect de la vie privée et à la sécurité des données, qui n'ont toujours pas été résolues.

Designing Calm Technology

En décembre 1995, c'est avec John Seely Brown, un autre brillant chercheur du PARC, que Mark Weiser écrit Designing Calm Technology. C'est the Dangling String, l'installation artistique de Natalie Jeremijenko, qui illustre le concept de technologie calme. Ce câble, pendu dans le hall du bâtiment, était à relié à un moteur pas-à-pas qui s'activait en fonction du trafic sur le réseau local. Ainsi, plus le réseau était encombré, plus la corde s'agitait, émettant un léger bourdonnement. Ce système rendait non seulement visible et audible ce qui était latent, mais il le faisait de manière discrète, non-intrusive.

L'article introduit la notion de "périphérie", pour qualifier l'information qui est disponible dans l'environnement proche, mais qui n'accapare pas l'attention. Il cite en exemple le bruit du moteur lorsque l'on conduit et la luminosité d'une fenêtre de bureau. Cette information peut très rapidement devenir le centre de l'attention, et tout aussi rapidement revenir en arrière plan. Mobiliser la périphérie permet de rester en contact avec un nombre plus grand d'informations tout en diminuant la charge cognitive.

L'avènement de l'informatique ubiquitaire annoncée par Mark Weiser, en disséminant les ordinateurs dans notre environnement, nous expose à toujours plus de stimuli. L'usage des technologies calmes est devenu indispensable pour limiter cette surcharge informationnelle. Cependant, ce revirement ne viendra pas des producteurs de contenus, trop intéressés par l'économie de l'attention. Les technologies calmes doivent pouvoir être la réponse des usagers à ces intrusions et, alors, tout le potentiel de l'ubicomp pourra être exploité.

Mark Weiser est décédé le 27 avril 1999.

Liens

Mots clés : mark weiser, ubicomp, calmtech, calme, peripherie, ubiquitaire

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